The paper, "The Hubble Constant is a Measure of the Increase in the Energy of the Universe ", introduces hyperverse theory, presenting the idea that our universe is the surface volume of a four dimensional, hollow hypersphere, termed the hyperverse. This page reviews, with little math, the topics of that paper, so please refer to the paper for a more rigorous discussion. For the video presentation of this paper, click here. There are several lines of thought supporting the idea that the universe is the surface volume of a 4D sphere.
For an alternative video, one explaining in more detail the balloon analogy point of view, see the video "The Balloon Analogy of the Universe May Actually be the Correct Model".
1. Atoms of Space
With the concept that space exists, not as a vacuum, but as a distinct entity, consisting of 'atoms of space', and that space is expanding, we can ask the question of where is there room for the additional atoms of space created by expansion? The universe is already full of space, and the only direction in which there is room to add more is into a fourth dimension. Think of it this way: if you have a circle, and you want to make it larger, you draw a larger circumference, to make a larger circle.
2. A Hyperverse Gives us a Positively Curved, Closed, and Finite Universe
The universe as the 3D surface volume of a 4D hypersphere gives a positively curved, closed, and finite 3D space. Every point in space is on the surface of the hyperverse. The edge of space is therefore everywhere. You and I, and the center of the earth and the sun, as is every point in space, are at the edge of space. We can state that the edge of space is everywhere, and the center of space is nowhere.
3. The Hyperverse is Expanding Radially at Twice the Speed of Light
If the universe is actually the surface volume of a hypersphere, then we can ask how large the hypersphere is. The radius of the observable universe is about 46.25 billion light years. Using simple math, we can calculate what the radius of this 'observable hyperverse" would be, and we get a value of about 27.6 billion light years. The universe is 13.8 billion years old. So how fast is the hyperverse radius growing? 27.6 divided by 13.8 is 2. This is amazing! This simple math says the universe is radially expanding at TWICE THE SPEED OF LIGHT, or 2c. Let us make this clear... as there is sometimes confusion over this. By RADIAL, we mean the hyperverse radius, the fourth dimensional radius. When I first did this calculation, I asked myself, "do I experience this somehow?", and the immediate thought was that this must be the basis of time. The amazingly rapid expansion of space into the fourth dimension is argued to be the basis of time in another page. This is NOT a violation of relativity, as we are talking about movement of the entire universe, not something within it. We will show how expansion creates relativity.
The 2c expansion rate for this 'observable hyperverse' is due to the nature of quantum time. The unit of quantum time increases with time, and in such a manner to cancel the accelerating expansion of the whole hyperverse. See this page for more details.
4. The Circumference of the Hyperverse is Expanding at a Rate Equal to the Hubble Constant
Knowing the radius of the hyperverse is expanding at twice the speed of light, we can next ask how fast ithe circumference is growing. The answer is the Hubble constant. The Hubble constant is a measure of how fast the galaxies are separating from one another. Any two points, anywhere, in any direction, lie upon the circumference of the hyperverse. The hyperverse's circumference is expanding at exactly what we measure for the rate of separation of galaxies, providing powerful support for the idea that the universe is the surface volume of the hyperverse.
5. The Hubble Constant is a Measure of the Fractional Increase in the Energy of the Universe
The paper gives an equation for the mass of the universe, and uses the 2c radial expansion observation to support the validity of the mass estimate. The next thing we do in the paper is show that the ratio of the rate of change of the mass, or energy, of the universe, to the total mass or energy of the universe, also matches the Hubble constant. This is where the title of the paper comes from. Some people will question this, as the Hubble constant is always seen as a measure of rate of separation of galaxies, and not as a measure of energy. But consider that the Hubble constant is a distance per second per distance. Mathematically, the distances cancel out, and the Hubble constant, in a pure sense, can be expressed as a dimensionless number per second. The math, and reasoning, given in this paper show that the Hubble constant is actually a measure of the rate that energy is being added to the universe. Space and energy are directly connected; more space means more energy. The equation shows that the Hubble constant is at its core, a measurement of the addition of energy to the universe.
6. The Volume of the Observable Universe is Equal to 12pi times the Hubble Volume.
We can use the concept of the universe as the surface of an expanding 3-sphere to easily calculate the radius and volume of the observable universe. We show that the radius of the observable universe is the cube root of 12 pi times the speed of light times the age of the universe:
That is, the volume of observable universe is greater than the volume of the Hubble Sphere by a factor of 12 pi. And we can easily derive this using the hyperverse model.
7. The Universe is Not a Vacuum; the Universe is Composed of Energy
If the universe is the surface volume of a 4D sphere, the surface must exist, separate and distinct, from the nothingness into which it is expanding. The universe is the surface volume of the hyperverse, and it exists as energy. Space is not a vacuum; it is energy.
8. The Gift of 2c
Although the whole 3-sphere is vastly larger than this 'observable hyperverse", we find that we can work with the observable universe as though it is a stand-alone hyperverse, in many ways. The 2c expansion rate is a striking result, and it is a gift.
The pursuit of why we measure a 2c expansion rate leads to another striking result: that time itself changes with expansion. The unit of quantum time increases, and its increase, in relation to a unit of expansion that we connect to the whole universe, cancels the enormous radial expansion rate of the whole, giving us a constant 2c expansion.
A 2c expansion rate is not an odd mathematical result that we can ignore. It is a gift, and is a key to understanding the nature of quantum time.