**This whole thing started** ...

in 2006 when I mentioned my life-long interest in gravity to my wife, Ilene. Just what is gravity? Why do things fall to the ground? Time was a big mystery too, but it seemed even more impossible to ever figure out. Ilene bought me Lee Smolin's book, "Three Roads to Quantum Gravity". In it, Dr. Smolin discussed the idea that space was composed of "atoms of space". A year later, the idea of atoms of space morphed from Lee Smolin's idea , and launched the entire line of work presented on this site. With the realization that the universe is the surface volume of a hollow, 4D hypersphere, expanding at twice the speed of light, or 2c, interest turned into obsession.

**The development of hyperverse theory concepts**

If atoms of space exist, and space is expanding, we can ask "where is there room for additional atoms of space. The cosmological principle implies that there is no edge to space, no place where the universe ends, no places exist in which one could look one way and see endless galaxies, and another, which was empty and devoid of matter and light. So there is no way to add additional atoms of space without creating problems. The solution is that space is expanding into another dimension. This would allow endless room to add space. A hollow, four dimensional sphere, or hypersphere, allows a simple solution to the expansion problem.

With a hypersphere, all points in space are in direct contact with the next higher dimension, so all atoms of space could move in that direction, a direction to which we cannot point. And by its nature, an increase in the radius of the hypersphere requires an increase in the circumference and surface volume. It is a natural and simple solution to allowing room for expansion.

## A critical calculation

The idea took off when I asked a simple question: "if the observable universe is the surface volume of a four dimensional sphere, how big would the hypersphere be?" The current radius of the observable universe is about 45.25 billion light years. The math says the radius of a 4D sphere would be about 27.6 billion light years. The age of the universe is about 13.8 billion years. Look at those two numbers, the 27.6 billion light years distance, and the 13.8 billion year age. Do you see it? It is two times... the hyperverse would be expanding at two light years per year, or 2c. See the calculation. This was the start of hyperverse theory.

Then came the realization that the atoms of space were getting smaller as the hyperverse expanded, which lead to the concept of the geometric mean expansion of space. This idea explains what the Planck values are, and gives us, importantly, values for the small of the universe. With the geometric mean expansion, we find that two quantum levels exist, one of which is the quantum of our quantum mechanics, and another, far far smaller, and it represents the quantum connected to the whole hyperverse. The geometric mean expansion of space gives us a very simple way to grow a universe from almost nothing into the giant we see today.

There were a couple of values that kept popping up. One was a number similar to the number of elementary particles calculated to exist in the universe. Also, a mass value kept coming up, a value similar to the mass of elementary particles. At first these numbers seemed to be coincidences, but after examination, these values appeared to represent the values of an 'ideal particle', what appears to be the target the universe is striving to create. The equations show that this ideal particle is not static, but changes over time.

From this, the conclusion was reached that matter is condensed space, crushed down to conserve angular momentum. Since the angular momentum of the universe continues to increase, particles of matter must continue to accrete the quanta of space. The energy of particles increases over time. And this continuing accretion of the quanta of space is gravity.